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Muscle Cells

Muscle cells are the special type of cells which makes up the muscle tissues of an organism. It is also known as muscle fiber and myocyte. These are long, tubular cells which develop from the myoblasts in order to form muscles in a process called myogenesis. It is of various specialized forms such as skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle cell with various properties. The cardiac ones are responsible for generating the electrical impulses which control the rate of heart and these are Centro nucleated. The skeletal muscle fibers help to move the body and support it and it tend to have peripheral nuclei. The smooth muscle fibers control the involuntary movements like the contractions of peristalsis in stomach.

The muscles regulate the biological functions such as heartbeat and digestion and it allow independent movement. These cells are further specialized in to distinct kinds that are based on their functions and location. All of it control movement by contracting. Much of its activities are involuntary and the muscles which direct the skeletal system can be controlled consciously. These muscles are trained in order to carry out highly precise strengthened and movements through exercise.

All living organisms are being composed of structures that are known as cells, many of these cells are microscopic in nature. In humans, these cells are present in trillions and it specialized highly in the early development. The nerve cells, for instance, make up the nervous system and brain and it can reach lengths of 3 feet that is 1 meter but these are incapable of independent movement. By contrast, the muscle cells have structures which allow for wide range of motions, from constant beating of the heart to the measured routines of a gymnast.

Kinds of Muscle Tissue

During the pre-birth stage or embryonic stage of development, the cellular bodies that is known as myoblasts mature and it develop in to various types of myocytes. In higher animals and humans, the muscle cells are of three types that are known as cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscle. The cardiac muscles keep the heart beating and it is capable to carry out the activity without any sign of fatigue. The smooth muscles are subject to involuntary commands and these are regulated by the brain-stem which is located at the skull’s base. It ensures that the internal organs function normally. The skeletal muscles are governed by the voluntary commands and it allows broad range of body movements. It is also known as striated muscles.

The three types of muscle tissue can be easily identified by their organizing structures that are visible particularly under the microscope. The skeletal muscle tissue is the most common type of muscle tissue in humans as well as large animals. It has grooves or striations which mark out each individual muscle cell. These cells are sometimes known as muscle fibers which extend the muscle length and it is important for the cells to perform its function efficiently.
The smooth muscle tissue has uniform appearance that looks similar to a non-muscular tissue. Here, the cells are not as elongated as the skeletal muscle fibers because the motion which is created by these muscles requires less energy and it is more gradual.

Cardiac muscle tissues have striations similar to skeletal muscles but here, the sizes of cells are small like the smooth muscles. It has a distinctive branched structure which helps to pump the blood through the heart.

Cell Structure

The muscle cell is made up of myofibrils. Myofibrils are organic cable-like structures that are composed of essential proteins. There are bundles of proteins within the myofibrils and it is arranged in to thin and thick filaments within the repeating sections which are known as sarcomeres. These proteins slide past each other responding to both voluntary and involuntary nerve commands which cause the muscle cells to relax or contract and it create movement. Each one of the cells have nucleus, a central organizing body. Most of the cells have one nucleus but the skeletal myocytes have several nuclei that are scattered along the length of cell. This allows nutrients and information to be delivered quickly throughout the cell. The smooth and cardiac muscle cell have single nucleus. In smooth cells, the nucleus is elongated. The myocyte can also draw energy from fat, glucose or proteins which are a form of sugar that is created in the digestive process.

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